Climate Setting

The climate in Tuvalu is tropical marine and warm year-round with minimal extremes, with relatively high humidity. The prevailing easterly trade winds help cool the islands and the temperature varies between a daily maximum of 31 °C and a minimum of 25°C.

Annual rainfall ranges from 2500 mm in the northern islands to 3500 mm in the south, mostly occurring as heavy showers. Wettest months are from December to March, which roughly corresponds to a change in winds from the north and west. Winds are generally light to moderate. Tropical cyclones are rare: for example, they struck in 1891 , 1972 and 1990.

ENSO-related severe droughts (usually during La Niña phases) periodically affect Tuvalu, especially the northern atolls. The drought of 2011 was particularly serious and water had to be imported from overseas.  Most recently in early 2016 Tuvalu again experienced prolonged drought conditions that seriously impacted human health, agriculture and the health of plants and animals.

Soil moisture regime is udic (dry periods less than 90 days).

The soil temperature regime is isohyperthermic (> 22°C and <5°C difference between winter and summer)

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